Non-convertible debentures are simply regular debentures, cannot be converted into equity shares of the liable company. They are debentures without the convertibility feature attached to them. As a result, they usually carry higher interest rates than their convertible counterparts.
NCDs might be the answer to your quest for the investment instrument that offers high returns with moderate risk while giving you the flexibility of choosing between short and long tenures.
An NCD can be both secured as well as unsecured. For secured debentures, which are backed by assets, in case the issuer is not able to fulfil its obligation, the assets are liquidated to repay the investors holding the debentures.
Secured NCDs offer lower interest rates compared with unsecured ones. If you want a regular income from NCDs, you can pick those that pay interest on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis. If you just want to grow your wealth, you can opt for cumulative option where the interest earned is reinvested and paid at maturity.
Companies seeking to raise money through NCDs have to get their issue rated by agencies such as CRISIL, ICRA, CARE and Fitch Ratings. NCDs with higher ratings are safer as this means the issuer has the ability to service its debt on time and carries lower default risk.
Interest earned through NCDs, if held until maturity, is clubbed with your income and taxed at your marginal income tax rate. If you sell your NCDs on the stock exchange before a year then you will have to pay short-term capital gains at income-tax rates applicable to you. If the debenture is encashed after one year but before its maturity, you will have to pay long term capital gains tax on the effective return at applicable rates.